Oracle Merge Statements
Version 12.1.0.1

General Information
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The Library is currently in the process of being upgraded from Oracle Database Version 11.2.0.3 to 12.1.0.1. Demos are being upgraded to reflect the new Container paradigm as well as EBR (Edition Based Redefinition) and may contain references to CDBs, PDBs, and other objects you may not be familiar with such as CDB_OBJECTS_AE: Welcome to 12c.
Usage Note Primarily of value when moving large amounts of data in data warehouse situations according to some people but in my opinion these statements don't belong anywhere unless the data volumes are so small as to be almost laughable. The reason I will not use these statements is very simply that they are brain dead. By which I mean that they assume there is an equal probability of the record being inserted or updated or deleted: This is never the case.

If the probability is that the record exists to be updated then use a FORALL UPDATE with SAVE EXCEPTIONS or an error logging table (DBMS_ERRLOG) and clean up the small number of failures that occur.
Demo tables and data conn uwclass/uwclass@pdbdev

CREATE TABLE employee (
employee_id NUMBER(5),
first_name  VARCHAR2(20),
last_name   VARCHAR2(20),
dept_no     NUMBER(2),
salary      NUMBER(10));

INSERT INTO employee VALUES (1, 'Dan', 'Morgan', 10, 100000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (2, 'Helen', 'Lofstrom', 20, 100000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (3, 'Akiko', 'Toyota', 20, 50000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (4, 'Jackie', 'Stough', 20, 40000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (5, 'Richard', 'Foote', 20, 70000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (6, 'Joe', 'Johnson', 20, 30000);
INSERT INTO employee VALUES (7, 'Clark', 'Urling', 20, 90000);

CREATE TABLE bonuses (
employee_id NUMBER, bonus NUMBER DEFAULT 100);

INSERT INTO bonuses (employee_id) VALUES (1);
INSERT INTO bonuses (employee_id) VALUES (2);
INSERT INTO bonuses (employee_id) VALUES (4);
INSERT INTO bonuses (employee_id) VALUES (6);
INSERT INTO bonuses (employee_id) VALUES (7);
COMMIT;

SELECT * FROM employee;

SELECT * FROM bonuses;
 
Merge Statement
Conditional INSERT,  UPDATE, or DELETE MERGE <hint> INTO <table_name>
USING <table_view_or_query>
ON (<condition>)
WHEN MATCHED THEN <update_clause>
DELETE <where_clause>
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN <insert_clause>
[LOG ERRORS <log_errors_clause> <reject limit <integer | unlimited>];
MERGE INTO bonuses b
USING (
  SELECT employee_id, salary, dept_no
  FROM employee
  WHERE dept_no =20) e
ON (b.employee_id = e.employee_id)
WHEN MATCHED THEN
  UPDATE SET b.bonus = e.salary * 0.1
  DELETE WHERE (e.salary < 40000)
WHEN NOT MATCHED THEN
  INSERT (b.employee_id, b.bonus)
  VALUES (e.employee_id, e.salary * 0.05)
  WHERE (e.salary > 40000);

SELECT * FROM bonuses;

Related Topics
Array Processing
Error Logging
Insert Statements
Oracle Built-in Functions
Update Statements

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